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Glass and Fiber Glass
Boron is an important ingredient in Glass and Fiber Glass sector. Majority of whole boron consumption is in glass industry. Boron improves the fluxing capabilities, reduces melting temperatures, thermal expanding coefficient, and increases the fiberizing efficiency by lowering the viscosity. It controls the relationship between temperature, viscosity and surface tension to create optimal glass fiberization. Boron also reduces the tendency of crystallization and increases the strength of the fibers and resistance against moisture.

Boron content in glass formulations changes from %1-22.5 B2O3. Boron product used in glass manufacturing varies by the types of production.

Glass Type Boron Products
Refractory Glass Boric Acid
Anhydrous Borax
Borax Pentahydrate
Borax Decahydrate
Insulation grade fiberglass Mostly Borax Pentahydrate
Textile grade fiberglass Boric Acid and/or Colemanite

Insulation Grade Fiberglass:
Mainly used to insulate residential, commercial and industrial buildings. It usually contains 5-12 % B2O3. In Insulation grade fiberglass, boron incorporation reduces viscosity of the melt and thereby assists fiberization as well as inhibiting the leaching of fluxes. Another important role of boron is to impart decompressibility. Borax pentahydrate is the most widely used boron product in this industry.

Textile Grade Fiberglass:
A wide range of textile grade fiberglass are produced as chopped fibres, mats, rovings and woven products. They have many application areas such as automotive, marine, electronics, aerospace, defense, infrastructure, construction and wind energy industries.

Boron is usually added in the composition both as boric acid or ground colemanite. ’E-glass’’ which has the low alkaline property is the most widely consumed type. It accounts for around 90 % of fiberglass consumption in the world.

Glass Type Boron Content Specialty Application Area
E-Glass 7.5 % B2O3 Low alkaline, good insulation, low water absorption, high heat and electric resistance Strengthening Fiberglass production, Electric-electronic, computer and aviation applications.
C-Glass 5 % B2O3 High mechanical performance Composites, roof, storing tanks
D-Glass 22.5 % B2O3 High electrical resistance Electronics industry
AR-Glass 4 % B2O3 High alkali and corrosion resistance

Optical Grade Fiberglass:
It enables photons to be transferred effectively in communication systems. Fiberglass used in Fiber optics contains around 22 %B2O3

Fiberglass Reinforced Polyester – FRP:
It is used to strengthen the hardness and durability of Plastic materials. It is mostly used in production of boat trunks, sports materials, panels and car trunks.

Borosilicate Glass:
Borosilicate glass is resistant to thermal shocks and chemical attacks and it has high electric resistance. It is used in the production of many glass products such as laboratory glasses, pharmaceuticals, cookware, solar energy systems and automotive lightings. During the production process addition of borates lower the melting temperature and prevent the crystallization of glass. Borosilicate glasses have B2O3 content between %5-30. Borax, Colemanite, Boric Acid or mixture of these products can be added to borosilicate glass formulations.

One of the major applications of borosilicate glass is thin film transistor liquid crystal display substrate glass (TFT LCD). This glass is a kind of optical sandwich which is comprised of two sheets of borosilicate substrate glass.