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Health
Health

Ongoing scientific studies reveal another use of borates in healthcare every day. World Health Organization (WHO) states that adult healthy individuals could consume 1-13 mg boron by feeding. Scientific research results nowadays show that a person needs a certain amount of boron element on a daily basis. Borates are also used in a very wide range of applications, including skin care and personal care products. Artificial tears (eyedrops) are commonly used to moisturize irritated eyes, remove redness, relieve the itching related with allergies. Both Borax Decahydrate and Boric Acid are frequently added in small quantities to these eyedrops,in order to control pH and retain moisture.

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Energy
Energy

Sustainable energy is the energy produced and used in such a way that it meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. As our population and cities grow, we are expected to act in a socially and  environmentally responsible way by keeping our carbon footprint and environmental  impacts to a minimum, use the best available technology. Solar and wind energy are major sustainable and renewable energy types of our era. Our boron products enable these technologies. Fiberglass produced with boron materials, is crucial for the production of wind turbines. High-power magnets used in turbine generator system is wind turbune generator systems. Borosilicate glass, glass contains boron trioxide, is used for the solar thermal panels.

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Timber
Timber

Boron compounds are known to be one the most effective wood preservative agents. Borates have been significantly effective in protecting wood products from pests such as termites, wood boring beetles, lyctus carpenter ants and decay fungi. Borates are usually applied as an aqueous solution. It can be appiled as a solution by using brush, spray or dipping. It can also be applied by vacuum presure process to the timber. High water solubility property of borates allows an easy application, mobilization and diffusion throughout woods cellular network and it provides integral protection. Borates are environmentallty friendly wood preservatives. They are safe for humans and animals but act as poison to the pests.

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Metallurgy
Metallurgy

Borates are used in Metallurgy Industry for the following purposes; to reduce melting temperature to increase fluidity to increase strength of the steel to reduce the corrosion of the refractory material in the furnace Steel ProductionBoron, as a non-metallic solid element, can penetrate and form an alloy with steel under high temperatures. Boron can significantly increase the hardenability of steel without loss of ductility. The addition of boron is usually in very small amounts ranging from 5-30 ppm.Boron products can be added to the ladle furnace during steel production in order to transform the slag from a low density to powdery material to a compact form that is twice the density. This makes the slag easier and more environmentally friendly to handle. It helps reduce costs because the compressed slag can be reused in the steel production as a substitute for some of the lime used to remove impurities, or else sold to the construction industry for use as a filler. These opportunities further help to avoid disposal costs and fees. SollderingDue to its ability to dissolve metal oxide films boron is used in soldering and welding as a flux. Boron trichloride is used in the refining of aluminum, magnesium, zinc, and copper alloys to remove nitrides, carbides, and oxides from molten metal. Powder MetallurgyIn powder metallurgy, the presence of Metal Borides, whether formed in-situ or added as a premix, provides multiple benefits to formed parts including high conductivity and mechanical strength. In Ferrous powder metallurgy, the addition of boron has the following effects: Forms a liquid phase during sintering. Increases density and hardness with increasing sintering temperature. Significantly decreases wear rate and weight loss. Enhances corrosion resistance of steel Enables low temperature sintering. Amorphous Metals (Metallic Glasses) and AlloysIn the production of amorphous metal alloys by rapid cooling, boron-containing alloys used in soft magnetic cores help reduce energy losses by up to %85. In alloys, borates readily associate with metallic oxide contaminants at a low temperature minimizing the loss of precious metals and reducing wear and tear on melting equipment.MagnetsFerroboron is used in the production of rare earth magnets which show superior magnetic properties for bonded magnets and permanent magnet materials.

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Glass and Fiber Glass
Glass and Fiber Glass

Boron is an important ingredient in Glass and Fiber Glass sector. Majority of whole boron consumption is in glass industry. Boron improves the fluxing capabilities, reduces melting temperatures, thermal expanding coefficient, and increases the fiberizing efficiency by lowering the viscosity. It controls the relationship between temperature, viscosity and surface tension to create optimal glass fiberization. Boron also reduces the tendency of crystallization and increases the strength of the fibers and resistance against moisture. Boron content in glass formulations changes from %1-22.5 B2O3. Boron product used in glass manufacturing varies by the types of production. Glass Type Boron Products Refractory Glass Boric Acid Anhydrous Borax Borax Pentahydrate Borax Decahydrate Insulation grade fiberglass Mostly Borax Pentahydrate Textile grade fiberglass Boric Acid and/or Colemanite Insulation Grade Fiberglass: Mainly used to insulate residential, commercial and industrial buildings. It usually contains %5-12  B2O3. In Insulation grade fiberglass, boron incorporation reduces viscosity of the melt and thereby assists fiberization as well as inhibiting the leaching of fluxes. Another important role of boron is to impart decompressibility. Borax pentahydrate is the most widely used boron product in this industry. Textile Grade Fiberglass: A wide range of textile grade fiberglass are produced as chopped fibres, mats, rovings and woven products. They have many application areas such as automotive, marine, electronics, aerospace, defense, infrastructure, construction and wind energy industries. Boron is usually added in the composition both as boric acid or ground colemanite. ’E-glass’’ which has the low alkaline property is the most widely consumed type. It accounts for around %90 of fiberglass consumption in the world. Glass Type Boron Content Specialty Application Area E-Glass %7.5 B2O3 Low alkaline, good insulation, low water absorption, high heat and electric resistance Strengthening Fiberglass production, Electric-electronic, computer and aviation applications. C-Glass %5 B2O3 High mechanical performance Composites, roof, storing tanks D-Glass %22.5 B2O3 High electrical resistance Electronics industry AR-Glass %4 B2O3 High alkali and corrosion resistance   Optical Grade Fiberglass: It enables photons to be transferred effectively in communication systems. Fiberglass used in Fiber optics contains around %22 B2O3 Fiberglass Reinforced Polyester – FRP: It is used to strengthen the hardness and durability of Plastic materials. It is mostly used in production of boat trunks, sports materials, panels and car trunks. Borosilicate Glass: Borosilicate glass is resistant to thermal shocks and chemical attacks and it has high electric resistance. It is used in the production of many glass products such as laboratory glasses, pharmaceuticals, cookware, solar energy systems and automotive lightings. During the production process addition of borates lower the melting temperature and prevent the crystallization of glass. Borosilicate glasses have B2O3 content between %5-30. Borax, Colemanite, Boric Acid or mixture of these products can be added to borosilicate glass formulations. One of the major applications of borosilicate glass is thin film transistor liquid crystal display substrate glass (TFT LCD). This glass is a kind of optical sandwich which is comprised of two sheets of borosilicate substrate glass.

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Flame Retardants
Flame Retardants

Borates especially zinc borate and boric acid /borax mixtures are used in various materials such as timber, cellulosic insulation, PVC and textiles as flame retardants. Boron, suppresses combustion by blocking the contact of burning material with oxygen. Boron treated materials provide a safer environment by inhibiting the ignition and slowing up the spread of flames. Flame retardant boron products can be applied to the materials by spraying or dipping process.

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Detergents
Detergents

Borates, used in the manufacture of laundry cleaning products, household or industrial type cleaners and personal care products in different kind of ways. In these applications, borates provide services as; facilitating stain removal and bleaching, acting as enzymes stabilizers, providing alkaline buffering, water softening, giving surfactant effect and increasing the performance of the materials used. At the same time borates help controlling bacteria and fungi formation in personal care products. At the recent studies various borates are added to increase the cleaning effect of the soaps, to reduce dirt adhesion to the surface again, and to obtain more bright and clean clothes. Borax decahydrate is added to soaps and detergents because of its water softening and germicide properties. Sodium perborate is added to powder detergents for washing machines as bleaching agent since it is an active oxygen source. Due to not containing chemical additives (oil derivatives, phosphates, fillers etc.)and being a natural product boron based detergents are known to be environmentally friendly. ETI MATIK ETIMATIK is a new product developed by Eti Mine Works General Management. It is not a detergent but a cleansing agent. Basic Properties Natural Cleaning Product Descaling effect Softening effect Effective in removing household and industrial stains No pre-wash Hygienic effect Prevents color fading Does not containpetroleum derivatives Does not contain phosphates

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Ceramics
Ceramics

Raw and refined boron products are used as essential ingredients for frit and glaze production and also in ceramic tile body formulations. Frit and glaze formulations can contain up to B2O3 depending on the manufacturing process. In frit and glaze formulations borates; Initiate glass formation Reduce glass viscosity Help to form a smooth surface Help to reduce thermal expansion; thus facilitating a good fit between the glaze and the clay. Borates also increase the refractive index, or lustre, of glazes and can enhance their resistance to chemicals. In recent years, significant effect of boron products in the ceramic tile body has been observed and consumption has also begun in this area. In ceramic tile body formulations borates provide environmental and economic advantages by lowering energy use, emissions and handling losses as well as reduced tile thickness that increase the productivity.

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Boron in Agriculture
Boron in Agriculture

In addition to macronutrients such as Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), Potash (K), Sulphur (S), Calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg) plants also need micronutrients. Boron (B) is one of the seven elements described as micronutrients which are essential for plant health, growth and development. Although micronutrients are required in small quantities, they are as important as macronutrients in plant nutrition. Insufficient micronutrient nutrition may reduce crop yields and quality. Functions of boron in plants: Nitrogen and Calcium metabolism Formation,transport and metabolism of sugars and other carbohydrates Proper pollination and pollen tube growth Wall lignin production and differentiation Formation of xylem vessels in roots and stems increase the uptake of other nutrients increases pest and disease resistance of plants when applied alone or in combination of other pesticides Quality and the yield increase Boron Deficiency:Deficiency in crops may be suspected on the basis of symptoms and by plant analysis, and also understood by soil analysis. Symptoms differ among plant species and can often be confused with other nutrient deficiencies that cause irregular growth. Since boron is immobile in plants, deficiency is usually detected in the younger tissues. Boron deficiency can be corrected by the application of boron containing fertilizers depending on the factors such as; type of the soil, climatic conditions, plant species and previous cropping. Boron is only required in small amounts and the range between deficiency and toxicity is very narrow.Boron Application:Boron may be applied to the plants, as soil application, mixed with other fertilizers, dissolved in water and sprayed on the crop/soil or through irrigation water. Boron as herbicideBoron based herbicides are produced from borax and boric acid, and they are generally mixed with sodium chloride or other toxic chemicals. Boron effects digestive physiology of the insects. Plants that are susceptible to boron applicationSome crops show boron deficiency symptoms more commonly than others. Boron Sensitive Crops: (alfabetik sırayla verebilrsiniz)   Highly Susceptible Moderately Susceptible Apples Coffee Oil Palm sweet corn Cocoa Pear Cabbage Cotton Rapeseed Barley Coconut Potato Cauliflower Cucumber Sugarbeet Beans Lettuce Radish Celery Groundnut Sunflower Broccoli Maize Rice Carrot Mango Turnip Citrus Papaya Soybean Alfalfa Eucalyptus Pine Clover Peach tobacco Olive Lucerne oil seeds Cabbage bananas strawberry Boron Products used in agriculture:Borax decahydrate and borax pentahydrate are most widely used borates as boron fertilizer. Sodium borates can be used as soil application and also as foliar application due to its high solubility. Colemanite which is a naturally occurring calcium borate is used especially in sandy soils as a slow release fertilizer which provides constant supply of available B in the soil. Disodium octaborate tetrahydrate is the most preferable boron product in agriculture since it has high solubility compared to the conventional boron products. COLEMANITE COLEMANITE is calcium borate mineral with the formulation of Ca2B6O11·5H2O It is a slow-release boron compound It has low solubility of 0.81 g/lt at 25° C distilled water and alkaline pH of 9.5 Rate of dissolution for colemanite is less then highly soluble sodium borates which prevents leaching of boron due to heavy rain falls. The use of colemanite also provides calcium to the plants which is an essential micronutrient like boron. The Calcium Borate mineral Colemanite is often used on sandy soils because it is less soluble and less subject to leaching than the sodium borates. It is usually applied as basal fertilizer. At serious B deficient condition, it should be combined with foliar spray ETIDOT 67 in practice. ETIDOT-67 ETIDOT 67 is a highly soluble borate powder for crop nutrient sprays and solutions. The High boron content of ETIDOT 67 makes it an economical source of boron for consumers. ETIDOT 67 having extremely high solubility & neutral pH is ideally suited for foliar applications. It is very widely used throughout the world for foliar application to fruits, vegetable and oil seed crops due to its easy solubility in cold water and neutral pH. ETIDOT 67 is a multi-function source of boron and can be used as direct application or blended with other liquid fertilizers, pesticides and insecticides for foliar spray. ETIDOT 67 is a highly concentrated, soluble B source that can be foliar applied as a liquid or dust. ETIDOT 67 is preferred to borax because it dissolves more readily. It is usually applied as foliar fertilizer. Application as basal fertilizer and top-dressing is also available. ETIBOR-48 ETIBOR 48 is a white free flowing granular product. It is highly soluble without any residue. This property makes ETIBOR 48 a versatile source of Boron in solid & liquid multi-micronutrient formulations, suspension fertilizers and also for direct application in soils. ETIBOR 48 is also very popular, containing about B 15%. It is a slow-released B fertilizer and usually applied as basal fertilizer. At serious B deficient condition, it should be combined with foliar spray ETIDOT 67 in practice. BORIC ACID BORIC ACID is particularly a very effective B nutrient in highly alkaline soils & in crops that are susceptible to sodium. It is also used as an insecticide, herbicide and fungicide in food crops and orchards. BORIC ACID is white, crystalline which can be easily blended with liquid fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides recommended for Foliar Spray. It is usually applied as foliar fertilizer Application as basal fertilizer and top-dressing is also possible. BORAX DECAHYDRATE BORAX DECAHYDRATE is the refined form of natural sodium borate. BORAX DECAHYDRATE is mainly composed of boric oxide (B2O3), sodium oxide and water. It is a mild, alkaline salt, white and crystalline,with excellent buffering and fluxing properties. When dissolved in water, it hydrolyzes to give mildly alkaline solution, thus capable of neutralizing acidic soils. It is an important multifunctional source of B2O3, particularly where the simultaneous presence of sodium is beneficial. BORAX DECAHYDRATE is used as a source of micronutrient B and can be blended with commonly used bulk / liquid fertilizers & micronutrient mixtures for Soil application or Foliar Spray.

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